Ann Bowler, Helene Collins, Steve Schianger, 7B
Science (Constructive/Destructive forces) - Grade 4
Commencement content standard from MST:
Standard 1: Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry,
and engineering design, appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers,
and develop solutions.
2: Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using
4: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles
and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment
and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.
5: Students will apply technological knowledge and skills to design, construct
use, and evaluate products and systems to satisfy human and environmental.
6: Students will understand the relationships and common themes
that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes
to these and other areas of learning.
1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design
Inquiry- Number 1: The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop
explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing creative process.
2: Information Systems
1: Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate
information and as a tool to enhance learning.
Setting- Number 2: Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve
interactions among components of *, water, and land.
3: Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable
characteristics of matter and its reaction.
Number 1: Through system people can recognize the commonalties that exist
among all systems and how parts of the system interrelate and combine
to perform specific functions.
standards or outcomes
will label a world map with the seven continents and four oceans.
will correctly identify cardinal directions on a map.
will design and create a map that includes a continent, an ocean,
a legend, and a compass rose.
will compare plate tectonic models to theoretic maps.
will assemble a puzzle of the continental plates.
will research volcanoes using a variety of sources.
will design a model of the composition of the Earth and label all
will discuss the concepts presented in the book, The Magic School
Bus Inside the Earth.
will participate in a demonstration of the effects of pressure on
will predict what effects constructive forces will have on the Earth's
will design a model volcano and stage an eruption.
will review and apply new science vocabulary through a variety of
will become f with myths and myth-Eke stories through literature.
will work cooperatively to describe, create, and compose volcano myths.
will use the writing process to write and edit their myths.
will ask "why" questions in attempts to seek greater understanding
concerning objects and events they have observed and heard about.
will question the explanations they hear from others and read about,
seek clarification and compare them with their own observations and
will develop relationships among observations to construct descriptions
of objects and its and to form their own tentative explanations of
what they have observed use of what they have o
will use a variety of equipment and software packages to enter, process,
display, and communicate information in different forms using text,
tables, pictures, and sound.
will telecommunicate a message to a distant location with teacher
help. Access needed information from printed material, electronic
data bases, and community resources.
will describe the relationships among air, water, and land on Earth.
will describe chemical and physical changes, including changes in
states of matter. discover that a model of something is different
from the real thing but can be used to study the real thing.
will use different types of models, such as graphs, sketches, diagrams,
and maps, to represent various aspects of the real world.
The following constructive and destructive forces unit will be ongoing
taking a minimum of 4 weeks to complete. The 15 activities listed below
each have a special educational component that includes support and modifications
from our Inclusion team. The volcano portion of this unit will be followed
by additional interdisciplinary instruction of concepts pertaining to
erosion, weathering, and earthquakes.
Materials needed: One "Geo Ball," large world map, chalkboard
or chart paper
Time Frame: Approximately 30 minutes
The lesson will begin with a KWL chart on the chalkboard or chart paper
listing what students know regarding the names and locations of the continents
and oceans. After completion, the "Geo Ball" will be tossed
to a student; he/she will need to try and name the continent or ocean
that is located under his/her light index finger. A world map will be
available for students to refer to for assistance should they need it.
Education support- Speech therapist will assist with introduction and
reinforcement of vocabulary.
Material needed: KWL chart from the previous day, blank world maps, reference
Frame: Approximately 45 minutes
KWL chart from the previous day. Emphasize the names of the continents
as well as the oceans. Discussion will also take place regarding appropriate
spelling and capitalization of the these locations. Students will be divided
into groups of 45 to label all continents and oceans on individual maps.
In addition, students will be given a color code to follow so that they
can shade in all of the areas on the maps. There will be reference maps,
encyclopedias, desk maps and computers available for this activity. (Internet
source for blank world maps http://www.vtourist.com/webmap/world0.gif)
After a sufficient period of cooperative work, a review of the maps will
take place. This review will be done using the overhead or the large screen
monitor or the VP100 projector.
Education support: Consultant teacher to assist with organization, modification
of maps (size, spacing, spelling, color coded labels, assistance with
Materials: globes, wall maps, compass, cue cut out letters--N, S, E, W
Time Frame: 30-40 minutes
Each pair of students will share a compass. They will be given time to
explore with and ask questions about the compass. A whole group discussion
will follow. Students will discuss their discoveries and teachers will
clarify. This will lead into a mini-lesson on cardinal directions and
compass mechanics. Students will assist in the labeling of the classroom
with the cut out letters.
addition they will be asked questions about the location of continents
in relationship to one another using cardinal directions.
Education support: Consultant teacher to assist with whole group lesson.
Materials: white construction paper, markers, crayons, wall maps, globes,
one inch graph paper.
Frame: Extended task
Using a sheet of large graph paper and or Corel Pain4 Color and Canvas,
Paint Brush or any other software, students will design their own continent.
(The shape can follow a theme so that other details can be incorporated
later on.) This shape will be transferred to the construction paper and
students will work on creating a compass rose and legend. Discussion should
take place to introduce the intermediate directions ( NE, NW, SW, SE,
) Students should create 5 questions about their own continents that ask
for specific locations and directions that pertain to their map.
Education support: Occupational therapist loll assist with design, cutting
and application of continent to construction paper, and the labeling of
the compass rose and the writing of the questions.
Materials: Round balloons, paper mache, labeled cutouts of continents
from previous activity, paints, newspaper cut in strips
Time Frame: Extended activity
Students will inflate round balloons and tie them. Each balloon will be
covered with the newspapers and paper mache solution. After the students
will paint the "globe" blue. They will then paste the labeled
continents onto the "globes" in the appropriate locations. The
oceans will also be labeled using dark markers.
Education support: Occupational therapist will assist with all fine motor
tasks (cutting, tying, painting, labeling, etc.)
Materials: Hard boiled eggs, magic markers
Time Frame: 40 minutes
Each student will receive a hard boiled egg. He/she win then draw a representation
of the globe on the en. carefully, each student will tap the egg gently
to create as few cracks as possible in the shell. Explain that the cracks
represent the edges of the different plates on the surface of the Earth.
(Extension: discuss that volcanic activity frequently occurs in these
regions.) At this point the teacher will read the informational packet
on "Pangaea", and a discussion of plate tectonics will ensue.
Education support: Occupational therapist will assist with all fine motor
skills associated with task
Materials: Plate tectonics puz7les, scissors, construction paper, glue
Time Frame: 30-40 minutes
Students will be given a plate tectonics worksheet that they will be required
to rut apart. They will then be asked to try and fit the continent pieces
together in a logical manner based upon the scientific theory that the
continents were once all one land mass. Once the pieces are assembled
together, they will be glued onto construction paper labeled with the
Education support: Consultant teacher will assist with visual/perceptual
skills, enlarging materials, and labeling. Occupational therapist will
assist with all fine motor skills associated with task.
Materials: Internet access
Time Frame: Extended task
will use the Internet and locate the web address: http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vw.htmi.
Here they will access "Volcano Lessons." Next they should click
on "Online Lessons" which brings them to the "Earth Sciences
they should go to chapter 1, "Plate Tectonics" and begin working
through the lessons. This is an open ended activity which will supply
them with supplemental information.
addition, this site provides teachers and students with hands on activities,
color diagrams and background information on Pangea Volcanoes, Earthquakes,
Rocks and Minerals and Prehistoric Earth.
Education support: Consultant teacher will assist with internet access
and organization of information found.
eggs from activity #4, a non-serrated knife, plates, chart paper or chalkboard
Time Frame: 30-40 minutes
students in a discussion by posing the following question: If you were
able to dig a hole in the Earth as deep as you could, what would you find?
Record their answers on chart paper or a chalkboard. Have students peel
the shell from the eggs. Explain that this shell represents the Earth's
carefully slice the egg for each student and have them analyze what they
observe about the egg. Guide discussion to include the following vocabulary:
layer, cross section core, etc. Explain that the yellow yoke is where
the inner core and the fluid outer core are located m the earth and that
the egg white is where the molten rock, called the mantle, is in the Earth.
Draw attention to the thinness of the Earth's crust in comparison to the
Education support: Consultant teacher/speech teacher to assist r4th mufti-step
directions, acquisition of new vocabulary and general organizational skills.
Materials: The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth, by Joanna Cole,
Worksheets of the Earth's interior, crayons
Time Frame: 30 minutes
Read through The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth, stopping to discuss
specific vocabulary that relates to the layer of the Earth (i.e. crust,
mantle, outer core, inner core). After discussion, students will label
and color layers of the Earth using worksheet charts and posters.
Education support: To provide alternate forms of the book (tape, video,
etc.) and reinforcement/tmodification of vocabulary and concepts.
Materials: black, red, yellow, blue, green Plasticine, non-serrated knife,
charts/posters with cross-section of the Earth, toothpicks, labels
Time Frame: Extended task ( 2-- 45 minute sessions)
will be making layered Plasticine models of the Earth. Plasticine will
be flattened and roiled in the following order: black will represent the
core, followed by red (the outer core), yellow (the mantle), blue (the
crust). Green can be used to represent land forms. Slice models in half
with a non-serrated knife. Discuss what the cross section represents;
identify sections with toothpicks and labels.
Education support: Occupational therapist to assist with tactile experiences.
Materials: cornstarch, water, paper plates, magma worksheet
Time Frame: 45 minutes
discussion will take place reviewing the layers of the Earth. The focus
should become the mantle, with attention to the fact that it is made of
melted rock or specifically, magma. When magma is under pressure below
the Earth's crust it has one kind of property. When the magma (lava) escapes
through a volcano, and is no longer under pressure, it has a different
teacher should make a thick, syrupy mixture of cornstarch and water. Students
will be grouped in pairs, with one paper plate in front of each student.
The teacher distributes the mixture to one partner and the student must
apply pressure immediately by rolling it in his/her hands like a ball
of clay. Then he/she should release the pressure and try to pass the ball
to his/her partner. Without the pressure the ' changes from a solid to
a liquid and is difficult to pass. Make sure that each student has a chance
to handle both states of the e.
Following activity and clean up, students will draw the two different
states of the magna on a worksheet.
Education support: Consultant teacher and/or Occupational therapist to
assist with multi-step directions, and sensory experiences.
Material: salt dough (2 cups flour, I cup salt 1 cup cold water, 2 tsp.
cooking oil food color) aluminum cake pans, sheets of aluminum foil 4
oz. of baking soda, 8 oz. of vinegar, chart paper, markers 4 oz. of detergent
16 vials, 2 vial caps, food coloring
Time Frame: 60 minutes for demonstration (teacher preparation of salt
dough must be done beforehand)
whole group discussion with the question "Why do you think a volcano
has been described as a mountain in a hurry?" Provide background
information about the composition of volcanoes. Include the following
vocabulary: cone, shield, composite,, steam, eruption, pressure, pumice,
gases, ash, lava, folded, fault block mountains.
constructing models, students will predict the effects of constructive
forces on the Earth's surface which alter its appearance. List these predictions
on chair paper. Students will be divided into groups of 3-4. Each group
will set one aluminum cake pan on a flat surface. A vial should be placed
in the middle of the pan. The aluminum foil should be placed over the
vial with the edges being pressed down into the cake pan (forming a mound).
Some groups can use the salt dough to form the "mound7' around the
vial. Clear the opening of the vial and place one teaspoon of the baking
soda into the volcano vial. Fill the second vial with white vinegar. Add
one or two drops of red food coloring some detergent and mix. Pour this
mixture into the "volcano vial' and observe what happens.
should describe what they observed. They can also make an illustration
of what they observed. Focus should be on the effects of destructive forces
on the Earth's surface.
Education support: Consultant teacher to modify and assist with the multi-steps
needed to complete the activity. Reinforce vocabulary and concepts related
to volcanoes. Provide organizational strategies for all students.
Material: Unit review packet
Time Frame: 20 minutes
will be given a review packet of the continents, oceans, cardinal directions,
elements of Earth's composition, Pangaea, volcano parts and types and
Education support: Consultant teacher will provide modified format of
Materials: crossword puzzle
Time Frame: 20-30 minutes
Students will complete a crossword puzzle using definitions of related
volcano vocabulary. They may work with partners or in small groups.
Education support: Consultant teacher will provide a word search or alternate
puzzles that are appropriate for varying levels.
Materials: sample volcano myths and a variety of myths, fables and legends
Time Frame: Extended activity
A volcano myth will be shared with students. Students will discuss myths
and myth-like stories. Teacher will guide class through discussion and
chart key ideas. Afterwards, student teams will try to create their own
Education support: Consultant teacher will assist with reading myths and
taking student through the entire writing process.