Curriculum
Design Arthur Browne, Nyack Middle School Grade
7 Science, Physical Changes in Matter
Commencement
Standard
Standard #1 Scientific Inquiry
Standard #2 Information Systems
Benchmark
Standards Intermediate
Content
Standards
 The students
will use scientific inquiry to develop explanations of natural phenomena
in a continuing, creative process.
 The students
will use scientific inquiry to test proposed explanations using conventional
techniques and procedures.
 The students
will analyze their observations using conventional methods and provide
new insights into phenomena.
 The students
will learn to use technology to retrieve, process and communicate
information and enhance their learning.
Performance
standards
 The students
will, represent, present ,and defend proposed explanation of an every
day event.
 The students
will seek to clarify, to assess critically and to reconcile with their
own thinking and the ideas presented others, especially peers.
 The students
will carry out their research proposals, observations and measurements
to help assess the explanation.
 The students
will design charts, tables, graphs and other representations of observations
to help address the hypothesis.
 The students
will interpret the organized data
 The students
will use spreadsheets and database software to process and display
information.
 The students
will use Microsoft Excel to create data tables, line graphs and histograms
Content
Standards or outcomes
 The students
will perform two complete experiments and will be assessed as to their
practice of safety, planning, responsibility, respect of others, and
cleanup.
 The students
will write two complete lab reports that follow the scientific method,
include all tables and graphs, and welldeveloped conclusion.
 The students
will construct four graphs using contemporary methods (by hand). These
must in include all data reported on tables, erroneous marks must
be analyzed and corrected, titles and labels must be clear and appropriate.
 The students
will construct four graphs using the computer and apply all of the
same details as, the hand written graphs.
During
a twoweek period the students will refresh their knowledge of the scientific,
method, perform and report on two experiments that deal with the physical
changes in state of matter. The students will also be reintroduced to
the need to record data and express it in an easy to analyze form. The
student, will be introduced to how they may make graphs and tables on
the computer to save time and eliminate many mistakes.
Enabling
Activities
Day
one  Discuss the lab and have students apply the experiment to the
different parts of the scientific method, have the students pair up. Students
should , set up the apparatus as seen on the black board then clean up.
This will all(, w the student the opportunity to understand why they must
move quickly. and efficiently when the experiment is performed the next
day. Discuss the use of a time/temperature table ,and distribute them
to the class. Have the students prepare the first page of their reports
for homework (title, purpose hypothesis and procedure).
Day
two  Discuss lab safety and remind students to wear goggles. Discuss
home work and any problems that may occur during the experiment also ask
if any problems were encountered so far. Remind the students to keep a
careful record of temperatures for both the water and the substance every
half minute. Have the student set up their apparatuses and heat 100ml
of water to about 80 degrees C . When this temperature is reached one
student from the group should retrieve a test tube with 15ml of substance.
The substance should be heated to at least 90 degrees C. The substance
should be moth nuggets(freezing point of around 52c) or moth flakes (freezing
point of 80 C) if time permits let half of each class do one substance
and the other half do the other substance. Clean up and return the substance
to the teacher. Remember to inform the students not to try to free the
thermometer from the now very solid substance, the substance must be remelted.
Day
three  Discuss the completed lab and have the students explain what
happened (I to the substance and when did the change occur? Was the change
as a result of time or temperature? The students should now create a Time
vs.Temperature, line graph. Discuss the flat sections seen on the line
graphs and discuss what this "plateau" might mean. When each
group has finished have the groups record the temperatures in a table
on the board.
Day
four  Have the students copy the class data from the table on the
chalk board. Discuss the use of symmetry in the creation of a table also
the importance of titles. Explain the use of a Histogram as a bar type
graph that show,. the number of times a sample of data repeats itself.
Discuss the scientific importance of numerous samples over the result
of a single effort. Create a histogram on the board with numbers on the
X axis going from 30 degrees C to 70 degrees C to cover the range in results.
After a few samples are recorded from the table to the histogram let the
students finish theirs on graph paper.
Day
five  Give students time to finish an3, unfinished work. Conclusions
should be discussed and written individually by the students. Discuss
the procedure for the next lab "Boiling Point". Explain that
some groups may have flammable liquids in their test tubes. Half of the
class should be given 15ml of water the other half of the class gets 15ml
of a mixture of 85% isopropanol and 15% water. The students must remember
to keep a time chart for the heat of the substance from the moment they
apply the heat. Prepare a the first page of the lab (title , purpose,
hypothesis (line curve shape)and method.
Day
six  Remind the students of all safety issues. Remind them again
to keep track of the temperature. Perform the boiling point lab.
Day
seven  Have students create line graphs and record their boiling
points on the table on the line graph. Students should write their conclusions
during class and finish their work at home if they need more time.
Day
eight  Have students meet you in the computer room. Have an overhead
prepared to display all of the boiling points from the day before, have
the students complete their charts. For the rest of the period allow the
students to become comfortable with the computers by creating a cover
page in word art and import appropriate pictures from clip art.
Day
nine  Have students meet you in the computer room, distribute the
hand out on line graphs and have students create new graphs for both experiments
using Microsoft Excel and chart wizard.
Day
ten  Have students meet you in the computer room, distribute the
hand out on histograms and have students create new graphs for both experiments
using Microsoft Excel.
NAME
PERIOD
DATE
PARTNERS
NAME
USING THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD TO WRITE A LAB REPORT WORK SHEET
TITLE:
(must be appropriate)
Purpose:
(Must express what you are trying to do)
HYPOTHESIS: (in this case, what do you think the temperature will do as
it approaches the moment when the substance goes through a physical change?)
METHOD: Describe in list form what you will be doing in the experiment).
1.
2.
3.
etc.
OBSERVATIONS:
(Again in a list)
1.
2.
3.
etc.
SKETCH
(if a sketch is to be used it should be to scale and well labeled).
DATA:
(all data will be recorded on tables given out by the teacher)
1.
TIME AND TEMPERATURE TABLES
2. TIME VS. TEMPERATURE GRAPHS
3. CLASS TABLE OF RESULTS
4. CLASS HISTOGRAM
CONCUISION: (Thc conclusion must explain whether our hypothesis was right
or wrong. It must also include your personal results and the results of
the class as seen in the class histogram.)
CREATING
LINE GRAPHS
Line
graphs are used in science to display data in an easy to read form. In
this lesson you will learn to create a line graph using "chart wizard".
The
following information applies to, Microsoft Excel
1
. Open excel
2. Type in all of the information recorded from your time/temperature
chart.
a. Type one set of temperatures in column A.
b. Type the other set of data in column B
3 . Highlight all data by pressing on the mouse and dragging across all
data.
4. Click on the tool bar for chart wizard.
5 . Step one of four will appear. Choose a graph type (line graph).
6. Click next.
7. Step two of four will appear. Click the tat) for series. Name each
series.
8. Click next.
9. Step three of four will appear. Type in the title and labels for graph.
10. Click next
11. Step four of four will appear. Choose new sheet.
12. Click finish
13. Adjustments may still be made by clicking on the sheet.
