CURRICULUM
DESIGN
Lisa lwanowski
Second Grade  Apples
Commencement
content standard
Standard
1: Analysis, Inquiry, and DesignStudents will use mathematical analysis
and scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose
questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.
Standard
2: Information SystemsStudents will access, generate, process, and transfer
information using appropriate technologies.
Standard
3: MathematicsStudents will understand mathematics and become mathematically
confident by communicating and reasoning mathematically, by applying mathematics
in real world settings, and by solving problems through the integrated
study of number systems, geometry, algebra, data analysis, probability,
and trigonometry.
Benchmark
standards: Elementary
Content standards
Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design
Mathematical Analysis  Number 3: Critical thinking skills are used in
the solution of mathematical problems.
Scientific
Inquiry
Number 1: The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations
of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process.
Number
2: Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves
the testing of proposed explanations involving the conventional techniques
and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.
Number
3: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed
using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.
Standard
2: Information Systems
Number
1: Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate
information and as a tool to enhance learning.
Number
2: Knowledge of the impacts and limitations of information systems is
essential to its effective and ethical use.
Standard 3: Mathematics
Mathematical
Reasoning Students will use mathematical reasoning to analyze mathematical
situations, make conjectures, gather evidence, and construct an argument.
Number
and Numeration Students use number sense and numeration to develop an
understanding of multiple uses of numbers in the real world, use of numbers
to communicate mathematically, and use of numbers in the development of
mathematical ideas.
Operations
Students will use mathematical operations and relationships among them
to understand mathematics.
Modeling/Multiple
Representation Students will use mathematical modeling/multiple representation
to provide a means of presenting, interpreting, communicating, and connecting
mathematical information and relationships.
Measurement
Students use measurement in both metric and English measure to provide
a major link between the abstractions of mathematics and the real world
in order to describe and compare objects and data.
Uncertainty
Students use ideas of uncertainty to illustrate that mathematics involves
more than exactness when dealing with everyday situations.
Patterns/Functions
Students use patterns and functions to develop mathematical power, appreciate
the true beauty of mathematics, and construct generalizations that describe
patterns simply and efficiently.
Performance
standards
 Students will
ask "why" questions in attempts to seek greater understanding
concerning objects and events they have observed and heard about.
 Students will
question the explanations they hear from others and read about, seeking
clarification and comparing them with their own observations and understanding.
 Students will
develop relationships among observations to construct descriptions
of objects and events and to form their own tentative explanations
of what they have observed used of what they have observed.
 Students will
explore and solve problems generated from school, home, and community
situations, using concrete objects or manipulative materials when
possible.
 Students will
carry out their plans for exploring phenomena through direct observation
and through the use of simple instruments that permit measurements
of quantities.
 Students will
organize observations and measurements of objects and events through
classification and the preparation of simple charts and tables.
 Students will
interpret organized observations and measurements, recognizing simple
patterns, sequences, and relationships.
 Students will
share their findings with others and actively seek their interpretations
and ideas.
 Students will
adjust their explanations and understandings of objects and events
based on their findings and new ideas.
 Students will
understand that computers are used to store personal information.
 Students will
demonstrate ability to evaluate information.
 Students will
use a variety of equipment and software packages to enter, process,
display, and communicate information in different forms using text,
tables, pictures, and sound.
 Students will
use patterns and relationships to analyze mathematical situations.
 Students will
justify their answers and solution processes.
 Students will
use whole numbers and fractions to identify locations, quantify groups
of objects, and measure distances.
 Students will
develop strategies for selecting the appropriate computational and
operational method in problem solving situations.
 Students will
construct tables, charts, and graphs to display and analyze realworld
data Students will use variables such as height, weight, and hand
size to predict changes over time.
 Students will
understand that measurement is approximate, never exact Students will
select appropriate standard and nonstandard measurement tools in measurement
activities.
 Students will
estimate and find measures such as length, perimeter, area, and volume
using both nonstandard and standard units.
 Students will
collect and display data
 Students will
develop a wide variety of estimation skills and strategies.
 Students will
determine the reasonableness of results.
 Students will
interpret graphs.
Performance
Measures
Day
1: Concept Web Chart: Students will list at least four things that
they know about apples. There should be four items under each heading:
types, locations, uses, and attributes.
Day
2: Apple Recording Sheet: Students will be able to accurately record
their estimations and draw/write accurate appearances of the apples throughout
the week on their apple recording sheet.
Day
3: Apple Sense Matrix: Students will correctly identify and record
how each type of apple/apple product looks, smells, feels, tastes, and
sounds.
Day
4: Estimation of Apple Circumference and Number of Seeds: Students
will accurately construct a bar graph based on the weight of each students
apple and write a few sentences explaining why they could have overestimated
or underestimated the number of seeds in their apple.
Day
5: Johnny Appleseed: Students will list at least three correct contributions
that Johnny Appleseed made that effect us today.
Day
6 and 7: Timeline: Working in groups, students will create a timeline
that includes the beginning of Johnny Appleseed's life, the middle, and
the end of his life. Students will complete the group reflection sheet.
Day
8: Apple Exemplar This problem allows students to define the task
by allowing different family members to pick different numbers of apples.
Each individual may pick up to 2 apples. The students must give a clear
explanation with a drawing that shows the students reasoning.
Day
9: The Season's Of Arnold's Apple Tree: Students must correctly label,
write, and draw how their apple tree would look throughout the year, in
their Seasons of "Student's Name" Tree book.
Day
10: Line graph: Students will correctly construct a three color line
graph based on the results of the apple recording sheet.
Content
standards or outcomes
 Students will
create a concept web showing what they know about apples.
 Students will
compare and contrast the outward appearance and weights of a regular
apple, partially peeled apple, and a fully peeled apple over the course
of one week.
 Students will
compare varieties of apples/apple products.
 Students will
estimate and compare actual measurements of an apple ( circumference,
weight, and number of seeds)
 Students will
work ingroups to create a timeline about Johnny Appleseed.
 Students will
solve an apple exemplar problem.
 Students will
create an apple book that depicts the seasonal changes of an apple
tree.
 Students will
use their applerecording sheet to create a line graph.
Enabling
Activities
Day 1:
Materials
needed:
blank concept web chart
*If available software titled, The Graph Club
Time
Frame: Approximately 3040 minutes
Activity:
Begin
the lesson by engaging in a class discussion about apples, specifically
having students share what they know about apples. Have each student work
individually, in pairs, or in small groups to complete a concept web based
on apples. If you have the program The Graph Club available to you, students
can complete the concept web using the graphic organizer provided on the
program. Students will then share what they know about apples and the
teacher can record this information onto a class concept web. The class
concept web can then be typed into the graphic organizer provided on The
Graph Club program.
Day 2:
Materials
needed: 3 apples (1 with all the skin on, 1 with partial skin on it, and
1 fully peeled)
Scale
Recording Sheet
Time
Frame: Approximately 25 minutes (observations recorded throughout the
week)
Activity:
Begin
the discussion questioning students what makes up an apple. What kinds
of substances are in an apple? For example; seeds, water, meat, and fruit.
Have students estimate how much they think an apple weighs. They should
record their estimation on their recording sheet. Pose the question, do
you think an apple that has some of its skin peeled away would change
the weight of an apple? Have them record their estimation of the partially
peeled apple on their recording sheet. Do the same for the apple that
is fully peeled and has no skin. Once all estimations have been recorded
weigh each apple and students write down the actual weight of all three
apples. Every day throughout the week the weight of each apple should
be estimated and then weighed for the actual weight. In addition, the
students need to observe the outward appearance of each apple and write/draw
the changes that take place. All of these results are recorded on their
observation sheet. A class recording sheet should also be kept and up
in the classroom for consistency. See Day 10 for followup activity.
Day 3:
Materials
needed:
Sense Matrix (chart for recording how the apple looks, smells, feels,
tastes, and sounds)
Variety of apples such as; Jonathan, Red Delicious, Macintosh, and Granny
Smith (to be cut into slices)
Apple cider (to be poured into individual cups for students to taste)
Applesauce (to be scooped into individual cups for students to taste)
Chart paper to record Apple Facts
Time
Frame: Approximately 3040 minutes
Activity:
Open
the lesson by reviewing the class concept web that was created yesterday.
Focus on the various types of apples and apple products. Depending on
the information already on the web you may or may not need to have students
brainstorm additional information, regarding different types of apples
and apple products. Add Jonathan, Red Delicious, Macintosh, and Granny
Smith if need be. Explain to the students that they will be comparing
varieties of apples and apple products. Using their sense matrix they
will be responsible for recording how each type of apple/apple product
looks, smells, feels, tastes, and sounds. You may want to have your students
sit ingroups so that each group has one plate that contains one slice
of each type of apple, cups of apple cider and applesauce. Close the lesson
by having the students share what they learned about each type of apple
and apple product. Record this on a chart titled, Apple Facts.
For instance:
Apple Facts
Jonathan:
Red color speckled with gold and green, juicy, and slightly Red Delicious:
Deep red color. Has an oval shape and 5 points and the bottom. Sweet,
firm, and crisp.
Macintosh:
Deep red color striped in yellow or green. Round, tart and juicy.
Granny
Smith: Bright green, round and tart. it's firm and crunchy.
Applesauce:
YellowishBrown color , creamy and slightly tart.
Apple
cider: Brown liquid, tart
*Homework:
Each student needs to bring in an apple.
Day 4:
Materials
needed:
Extra apples
Apple corer
5 or 6 small scales
Yam or string
Student recording sheet
Time
Frame: Approximately 45 minutes Activity:
Each
student will use their apple for the following activity (have extras for
those who do not bring in an apple). Discuss with the students that they
will be estimating and measuring various parts of their apple. Review
the term estimation and introduce the term circumference. Using their
recording sheet, have the students write down their estimate for the circumference
of their apple. As they are doing this, circulate around the room with
the yam. Lay the yam on each student's desk and have him/her cut the length
of yam they think is the circumference of their apple. The students test
their estimation by putting one end of the yam in the center of their
apple and placing the string around their apple, remembering to keep it
on the center. If there was left over string their estimation was too
much. If there was not enough string their estimation was too little.
If the string fit perfectly their estimation was just right. Students
then graph their estimation on a class graph using their string.
Next
have students estimate the weight of their apple and record their estimation
on their recording sheet. Students weight their apple on the scale and
record the actual weight on their recording sheet. A class bar graph can
then be created showing the students results.
Lastly,
have students estimate the number of seeds in their apple and record on
their recording sheet. The teacher then cores each apple and the students
count the number of seeds actually in their apple.
In the
students math journal have them write about their estimations and how
it will help them make more accurate estimations in the future. What things
will they take into consideration (size, shape, weight, prior knowledge,
etc.) For example, did they overestimate and why they think they did or
did they underestimate and why they think did.
Day 5:
Materials:
Johnny Appleseed by Stephen Kellogg Index cards
Marker
Time Frame: Approximately 40 minutes Activity:
Read
aloud Johnny Appleseed by Stephen Kellogg, spend time with the illustrations
and help children notice and describe the many details shown. As a class
discuss the events that occurred in Johnny's life. Record these events
on index cards. Discuss the contributions Johnny Appleseed has made and
how they effect us today. Students can write about this in their journal.
Day 6and
Day 7:
Materials:
Timeliner software program if available Index cards from yesterday Time
Frame:
Approximately
80 minutes Activity:
Along
the chalkboard ledge display the index cards. Have students choose which
event occurred first, second, etc. until all the events are in correct
chronological order. Number the cards accordingly. Divide the class into
groups of 3. Each group is responsible for creating a detailed timeline
representing Johnny Appleseed's life. Within each group one student is
responsible for the beginning of Johnny's life, one student is responsible
for the middle of Johnny's life, and one student is responsible for the
end of Johnny's life. Students use the class timeline created plus, additional
books about Johnny Appleseed. The completed timeline can be published
on the software program Timeliner, if available or published using construction
paper.
Day 8:
Materials:
Apple Exemplar Problem (1 for each student) Construction paper
Manipulative
Time
Frame: 40 minutes
Activity:
Students
will be given an apple exemplar problem to solve by drawing and writing
how they got their answer. Read the apple exemplar problem together: Build
3 apple trees. There are at least 6 apples in each tree. A family of four
wants to go apple picking. Each person may pick up to 2 apples. How many
apples did. the family pick? Have the students tell about the problem
in their own words and write this down on the board. Remind students to
draw pictures to help them solve the problem and to use manipulative if
they need to. They must also write how they solve their problem. For instance,
I got my answer by....
Day 9:
Materials
needed: The Seasons of Arnold's Apple Tree ,by Gail Gibbons
Chart showing 4 empty trees
Construction Paper
Time
Frame: Approximately 45 minutes
Activity:
Read
aloud, The Seasons of Arnold's Apple Tree and discuss the seasonal changes
of an apple tree. As students are noting the changes that occur in an
apple tree during each season, record these (draw) on the blank tree chart
and label. Students will then create their own apple tree book which can
be titled, The Seasons of "Student's Name" Tree. Each page in
the book would depict what their apple tree would look like during each
of the seasons. For instance page one would depict an apple tree in the
Fall.
Day 10:
Materials
needed:
Apple Recording Sheet from Day 2
Chart for line graph
Chart for three apples
Time
Frame: Approximately 40 minutes
Activity:
Using
the class recording sheet, discuss with students the changes that occurred
throughout the week between the three apples. As students are sharing
their observations with the class record their statements on the apple
chart. The apple chart could have headings such as; Whole Apple, Partially
Peeled Apple, and Fully Peeled Apple. Brainstorm why they think the changes
occurred, guiding the discussion towards water weight and water evaporation.
Using the Apple Recording Sheet, create a line graph depicting the change
in apple weight throughout the week. The whole apple results would be
one color, the partially peeled apple results would be another color,
and the fully peeled apple results would be another color.
Apple Exemplar Problem:
Build
3 apple trees. There are at least 6 apples in each tree. A family of four
wants to go apple picking. Each person may pick up to 2 apples. How many
apples did the family pick?
