Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information
using appropriate technologies.
Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles,
and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment
and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.
2: Information Systems
Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate
information and a tool to enhance learning.
4: Physical Setting
May of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions
among components of air, water, and land on Earth.
Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the
observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.
Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy
Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes
will use a variety of equipment and software packages to enter,
process, display, and communicate information in different
forms using text, tables, pictures, and sounds.
will telecommunicate a message to a distant location with
will access needed information from printed media, electronic
data bases, and community resources.
will describe the relationships among air, water, and land
will observe and describe properties of materials using appropriate
will describe chemical and physical changes, including changes
in states of matter.
will describe a variety of forms of energy (e.g.., heat, chemical,
light) and the changes that occur in objects when they interact
with those forms of energy.
will observe the way one form of energy can be transformed
into another form of energy present in common situations (e.g.,
mechanical to heat energy, mechanical to electrical energy,
chemical to heat energy).
will describe the effects of common forces (pushes and pulls)
on objects, such as those caused by gravity, magnetism, and
will describe how forces can operate across distance
standards or outcomes
will work in groups cooperatively.
will preform experiments safely.
will record their observations of each experiment in their
will create a mixture that will take all 3 states of matter.
will share a current event that pertains to Matter and Its
will demonstate understanding by applying it to everyday life.
will create a short experiment on any matter or mass topic
individually or with a partner.
criteria for student evaluation based on attitudes and behavior
- awareness of environment, questioning attitude
- interest in new ideas
- ability to work independently of direct guidance
to risk failure or to try novel ideas
in integrating background knowledge and science experiments
of responsibility to the group
and purpose in attacking a problem
and facility in using equipment
keeping - completeness and form
- relevancy of message, balance between listening and telling
to classify information and delineate problems
to evaluate data and formulate generalizations
to complete a job
and respect for equipment
of Matter- some background information-
around you is made of stuff called matter, and all matter is made of
atoms. Matter is anything that comes in three varieties, what scientists
call phases. There are solids like rocks, cookies, and yourself. There
are liquids like water, honey, and juice. And there are gases, such
as air or steam. The main difference in the three phases is how fast
the matters atoms move.
atoms move around because they have energy. The more energy in something,
the faster the atoms. Atoms in an ice cube dont move very much
-- they are frozen in place. The atoms in a glass of water slip and
slide around-- thats why you can pour water. Water vapor atoms
are moving pretty fast-- thats why they float away. Changing an
objects phase of matter is just a matter of adding energy to atoms
or taking it away.
adds energy to atoms, and freezing takes energy away from atoms. If
you fried an ice cube in a pan on a stove, you would see all three phases
of matter --ice cube, liquid water, and water vapor.
Students will observe that air takes up space.
*2 plastic cups
does air look like? What color is the air? What shape is it? In your
Science Journal draw what you think air looks like? Air has no shape
but fills everything. Air is everywhere, even inthe things that look
empty. Although air is invisible and has no shape, you can see its strength
on a windy day. You can feel its force when you ride your bike.
way you can describe air is that it takes up space. You can show that
air takes up space by pouring air from one plastic cup to another.
Fill a large plastic container with enough water so that you can hold
a cup completely underwater.
Hold one plastic cup under the water to fill it with water.
Carefully turn the cup upside-down underwater so that the water stays
in the cup.
Hold the second cup upside-down above the water. Keeping the cup upside-down,
slowly push it into the water until it is under the water.
What is inside the cup?
Move the cups next to each other.
Now raise the cup filled with water slightly higher than the cup filled
Now pour the air from one cup to the other.
happened to the water in the cup when you poured air into it?
can you tell about air from what you observed?
How Fast Matter Changes States
Observe, measure, and compare how fast water changes states under different
Use a table like the example below to record your observations.
Add 200 mL of water to each jar and the bowl.
Put the lid on 1 on the jars.
Put the 2 jars and a bowl in a warm place in the room.
Wait for 3 or more days. Then use a graduated cylinder to measure the
amount of water that is left each jar and the bowl. Record this information
in your table.
after 3 days
Which container lost the most water?
Which container lost the least water?
In this activity, under what conditions does liquid water change to
water vapor the fastest?
What You Learned:
you think the same amount of water in a large, shallow puddle or in
a small deep puddle would dry up faster? Explain your answer.
Measure the volume of solid objects in two ways.
mL graduated cylinder
Use tables like the ones shown to record your results.
Measure the length, width, and height of a block of wood in cm. Record
these numbers in your table.
Add 30 mL of water to a graduated cylinder. You have measured the volume
of the water. Record this number in your table.
Carefully add a small rock to the water in the graduated cylinder. Read
the graduated cylinder again and record this number in your table. This
number is the volume of the rock added to the volume of the water.
Find the volume of the rock by subtracting the original volume of the
water from the new volume of the water and the rock. Record this volume
in your table.
Width Height Volume
of Volume of Volume of rock
Water and rock
How can you use a ruler to find the volume of a solid object?
How can you use a graduated cylinder to find the volume of a solid object?
What You Have Learned:
could you measure the volume of a piece of chalk?
Can We Compare Density?
Students will learn to compare the density of objects.
bathroom size paper cups
lb. unpopped popcorn
pkg. microwave popcorn popped
clear plastic containers
wooden double pan balance
use of the double pan balance allows the student to focus directly on
the compariaon of objects by mass. Weight is the comparison of an object
to a known scale. Weight is the measure of force, which gravity exerts
on an object. In common use, wight and mass can be interchanged. Under
water or in outer space mass remains the same but weight changes due
to variations in gravitational pull.
is the amount of mass that a material has for its volume. Some objects
have more mass than others. Lets prove it! Dont forget to
use your Science Journal.
procedure in groups of three:
Fill one paper cup with unpopped corn. Fill the other cup with popped
Place one cup on each pan of the balance. Record with cup has the greater
Predict whether the popped or unpopped corn will float in water. Record
Put some popped and unpopped corn into the container with water. Record
the group together and ask the following questions:
How does the volume of the popped corn compare with the volume of the
Which cup of corn has the greatest mass?
What did you observe when both samples of corn were put in water?
Does popcorn become more or less dense after it is popped? How do you
Solids, liquids and gases. You can make a sugary snack while you see
the three phases of matter. All you have to do is perform this experiment.
to boil water
cup of water
cups of sugar
jar (e.g., jelly jar), make sure its clean
Boil the cup of water.
Once its boiling, add two cups of sugar.
Stir with the wooden spoon a bit and continue to boil.
While thats happening, cut a piece of string and tie it to the
middle of the pencil. Test the length by laying the pencil over the
mouth of the jar -- the end of the string should not touch the bottom
of the jar.
Once the sugar is dissolved in the water, have the adult pour the liquid
into the glass jar.
Lay the pencil over the mouth of the jar so the string is dangling in
Wait for the steam to stop rising out of the jar. When it stops, cover
the mouth of the jar with plastic wrap.
Put the jar in a safe place where it wont be disturbed.
Science Journal: Keep a log with illustrations of the phases that your
experiment is going through.
In a few days, pull the string out of the jar. You started with a liquid,
saw some steam, and, if you followed the experiment, youve ended
up with a solid.
but theyre not diamonds -- its rock candy. Normally you
should never taste and science experiment, but this is an exception.
Isnt science sweet?
To explore how an objects level of suspension depends upuon the liquids
density and the objects density.
each of five different, small objects (e.g., golf tees, erasers, popcorn
kernels, beads, and toothpicks)
small containers of the following:
Place the cups so they are visible to all the students.
Have volunteers each fill a cup with a different liquid.
Start with one set of small objects, such as the golf tees, and give
one to each volunteer. Tell the class to watch carefully. Then signal
the kids to drop the objects into the cups simultaneously. 4. Have your
students write their observations in their Science Journals. When everyone
has finished writing, have the kids remove the objects with tongs or
Choose five other students to take a turn dropping another set of objects
into the cups.
Have students write their observations.
Continue this procedure with the rest of the objjects. Then ask the
children to share observations and draw conclusions.
should conclude that the objects level of suspension depends upon
the liquids density and the objects density.
Children will explore the changes in matter.
Place the ice cube in the glass of water.
Lay the string across the ice cube so that the ends dangle over the
sides of the glass.
Sprinkle salt on top of the ice.
In Science Journals have students predict what will happen to the salted
Wait 3 or4 minutes, than lift the string.
students will lift the ice cube out of the water as well.
ask your students why you were able to lift the ice with the string.
Write about your prediction and why it worked or didint work.
find that salt lowers the freezing point of ice and causes it to melt.
A portion of the ice cube melted aroung the string, but the remainder
of the frozen cube caused the melted part to refreeze around the string.
can easily compare the density of one kind of matter with another kind
of matter if you have the same volume of each object. If you measure
the mass of 1 cubic centimeter of wood, your will find that it has a
mass of a little less than 1 gram. If you measure the mass of 1 cubic
centimeter of salt, you will fink that it has a mass of about 2 grams.
Does the wood or the salt have a greater density?
Students will be able to determine how much mass is in a certain volume
of matter using every day liquids.
red and yellow food coloring
Pour the same amounts of different liquids into the separate beakers.
Place drops of food coloring in each of the beakers.
Ask students what the volume of each liquid is? Record in Science Journal.
Discuss how each liquid has a different mass - or amount of matter-
in that space.
Pour two of the liquids into the beaker. Time how long a reaction takes
Which liquid has more matter in it?
Which liquid has greater density?
Which liquid has least density?
Pour the third liquid into the beaker. Time how long a reaction takes
Which liquid has more matter in it?
Which liquid has greater density?
Which liquid has least density?
water has more matter in it than the same volume of oil does. The water
has a greater density than the oil does. The oil has more matter in
it than the same volume of alcohol does.
is another property of matter that you can measure. A unit for density
uses both a unit used for measuring mass and a unit used for measuring
volume. For example, 1 cubic centimeter of water has a mass of 1 gram.
Waters density is 1 gram per cubic centimenter.
a solid object has a greater density than wate has, it will sink in
water. If an object has a lower densiry than water has, it will float.
Most people can float. Their density is slighhtly less than the density
Read Bartholomew and Oobleck by Dr. Suess
The students will need to determine if the mixture made is a solid or
powder (corn starch)
liquid (food coloring)
Cover your desk with newspapers.
Put two (2) teaspoons of white powder on your paper plate.
Add a few drops of green liquid and stir the mixture wiith your spoon.
Add liquid until the mixture is nice and smooth.
Carefullty test the "OOBLECK". Use a piece of waxed paper
so it doesnt stick to your newspaper.
are some things you might do:
Try to pour it.
Poke it with your fingers.
Poll it into a ball and try to bounce it on the desk.
your findings in your Science Journal.
Did You Learn?
How was the "OOBLECK" like a solid?
How was the "OOBLECK" like a liquid?
What You Learned:
What other objects acts like a solid and a liquid? Name them:
How are the objects on your list like solids? How are they like liquids?
The students will create their own liquid that does not act according
to the basic laws of fluid dynamics.
liquids follow the basic laws of fluid dynamics: They remain liquid,
taking the shape of their container, even at high pressures.
interesting liquid that does not act according to those laws can be
made from a powdered cornstarch and water.
the proper ratio (approximately 60% starch: 40% water depending on the
mineral content of the local water), a cornstarch/ water mixture will
react to external pressure. It will remain a thick liquid in the palm
of the hand. When squeezed, it will instantly solidify. When the pressure
is realeased, the solid will immediately return to a liquid state.
Provide students with samples of cornstarch and water. Do not give them
the correct mixing ratio for the two ingredients. Instead, show them
a sample of the amazing fluid.
Challenge them to create a similar sample.
Allow them to experiment with and make record of different mixing ratios
in their Science Journals. They will eventually discover a ratio of
the two ingredients which behaves in the fantastic manner.
thick fluid solidifies under pressure because the water molecules are
forced into a temporary crystal lattice with the large protein molecules
of the cornstarch. Similar to the reaction that takes place when wet
concrete hardens, the water molecules form a very strong crystal lattice.
In concrete, the crystals are strong and permanent. In the starch the
crystals will form only under pressure. As soon as the pressure is released,
the crystals collapse.
Individual or Partener Project:
any method of research, books, reference, Internet, E-Mail, experimentation,
you must come up with an experiment to share with the class. If you
wish to make a hypothesis statement before beginning and then prove
of disprove your hypothisis, that is acceptable. Please see me initially
to approve your idea whichever method you choose..
any type of reference to find out about the different states of matter
in Halleys Comet. What kind of change takes place as the comet
moves toward the sun?
point and boiling point are two properties of matter that can be measured.
Find out what melting point and boiling point are and what unit scientists
use to measure them. What are the melting point and boiling point for
water and for iron?
by Andrienne Soutter-Perrot. Published by Creative Editions, 1993.
and the Oobleck by Dr. Seuss. Published by Random House, 1949.
You Can! by Vicki Cobb and Kathy Darling. Published by Avon Camelot.
You Cant! by Vicki Cobb and Kathy Darling. Published by Avon
Glasses to Gases: The Science of Matter by Dr. David Darling. Published
by Dillon Press, 1992.
94" Volume 23, Number 1 August.
and How We Use Them by Tillie Pine. Published by McGraw/Hill, 1977.
Liquids and Gases by Melvin Berger. Published by G.P.Putmans
Bet? by Vicki Cobb and Kathy Darling. Published by Avon Camelot.
and Measuring by Annabel Thomas. Published by Usborne Publishing,