Laura
Pakaln; Group 2B
Money: First Grade
Commencement
Content Standards
Standard
1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Desipn:
Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering
design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.
Standard
2: Information Systems:
Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using
appropriate technologies.
Standard
3: Mathematics:
Students will understand mathematics and become mathematically confident
by communicating and reasoning mathematically, by applying mathematics
in realworld settings, and by solving problems through the integrated
study of number systems, geometry, algebra, data analysis, probability
and trigonometry.
Standard
6: Interconnectedness: Common Themes:
Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect
mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and
other areas of learning.
Benchmark
Standards: Elementary Level
 Abstraction
and symbolic representation are used to communicate mathematically.
Deductive and inductive reasoning are used to reach mathematical conclusions.
Critical thinking skills are used in the solution of mathematical
problems.
 Information technology
is used to retrieve, process and communicate information and as a
tool to enhance learning.
 Students use
mathematical reasoning to analyze mathematical situations, make conjectures,gather
evidence, and construct an argument.
 Students use
number sense and numeration to develop an understanding of the multiple
uses of numbers in the real world, the use of numbers to communicate
mathematically, and the use of numbers in the development of mathematical
ideas.
 Students use
mathematical operations and relationships among them to understand
mathematics.
 Students use
mathematical modeling/multiple representation to provide a means of
presenting, interpreting, communicating, and connecting mathematical
information and relationships.
 Models are simplified
representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis,
explanation, interpretation, or design.
 Solving interdisciplinary
problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective
work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and
analyzing ideas; realizing 'ideas; making connections among the common
themes of mathematics, science and technology; and presenting results.
Performance
Standards
 Students use
special mathematical notation and symbolism to communicate in mathematics
and to compare and describe quantities, express relationships, and
relate mathematics to their immediate environments.
 Students explore
and solve problems generated from school, home, and community situations,
using concrete objects or manipulative materials when possible.
 Students use
a variety of equipment and software. packages to enter, process, display,
an communicate information in different forms using text, tables,
pictures and sound.
 Students telecommunicate
a message to a different location with teacher help.
 Students use
models, facts, and relationships to draw conclusions about mathematics
and explained their thinking.
 Students justify
their answers and solution processes.
 Students use
logical reasoning to reach simple conclusions.
 Students relate
counting to grouping and to place value.
 Students add
subtract whole numbers.
 Students construct
tables, charts and graphs to display and analyze realworld data.
 Students use
multiple representations (simulations, manipulative materials, pictures,
and diagrams) as tools to explain the operation of everyday procedures.
 Students use
different types of models, such as graphs, sketches, diagrams, and
maps, to represent various aspects of the real world.
 Students make
informed consumer decisions by applying knowledge about the attributes
of particular products and making cost/benefit tradeoffs to arrive
at an optimal choice.
 Students work
effectively; gather and process information; generate and analyze
ideas; observe common themes; realize ideas; present results.
Content
Standards
Students:
 will learn that
a penny is worth one cent.
 will add pennies
and determine how many cents they have altogether.
 will understand
that when a penny is tossed, it will not always land on the same side.
 will understand
that I 00 pennies has the same value as $ 1.00, a dollar bill.
 will predict
and count the number of pennies that fit inside of their footprints.
 will learn the
value of a dime.
 will determine
the value of objects to be sold in a class store.
 will learn to
add together coins of different value.
 will group coins
by value.
 will examine
coins closely and investigate qualities that are the same and different.
 will make a coin
graph in more than one way.
 will add together
coins of different values to make $ 1.00.
 will learn how
to make change.
 will shop in
and run their own class store.
Performance
Measures
Level
1: Beginner
Student has difficulty grasping the concept of coin value. The student
may be able to identify coins by name, but unable to explain its value.
This student will have more success in enabling activities that emphasize
onetoone correspondence such as counting pennies.
Level
II: Intermediate
Student grasps concepts of coin value and can identify values of different
coins, but has difficulty accurately finding sums of mixed coins. Student
will have more success in adding coins that are the same, such as only
nickels or only dimes.
Level
III: Mastery
Student grasps all concepts presented 'tn unit and is able to accurately
add and subtract when using coins of different value.
Pocket
Pennies
Objectives:
Children will learn that a penny is worth one cent. Children will
add pennies and determine bow many cents they have altogether.
Materials:
containers of pennies for each child (approx. 10 pennies)
overhead projector and transparency extra pennies for overhead
overhead markers
Peter's Pockets, by Eve Rice portion cups chart paper spare shirts or
smocks
Procedure:
Read the story Peter's Pockets to the children. Discuss the ways that
Peter used his pockets. Ask the children bow many objects be could carry
in each pocket. Could they determine how many pockets Peter had?
Explain
to the children that they are going to be using their pockets to put pennies
in. Ask if they know what a penny is? How much is it worth? Use the overhead
and place one penny on the transparency. Ask the children how much money
is there. After they answer, write "I cent" below the penny.
Rewrite the amount, using the cent sign, and discuss why we use the symbol
in place of the word.
Put
two pennies on the overhead. Ask how much money there is now. Write the
amount. Continue in this manner until you reach 10 cents.
Explain
to the children that they are going to place only one penny in each of
their pockets. If a child does not have any pockets, allow the child to
wear a jacket, sweater, smock, etc. After they complete this task, tell
the children you want them to count out how many pennies they have altogether.
Demonstrate by putting your pennies on the overhead and counting them.
Write down the amount.
Next,
have the children work in small groups to combine their pennies, putting
10 pennies into each portion cup. When they're finished, ask the children
how they could find out how many pennies the class has altogether. If
counting by tens is not suggested, you can suggest that it would be the
fastest way.
On
a piece of chart paper, write the days of the week (MondayFriday) in
a column. Next to Monday, write the amount of pennies that you and the
children counted. Explain that they will do this every day for one week.
Have them discuss how they might end up with more pennies on another day.
Assessment:
Children will correctly identify a penny and its monetary value.
Children
will accurately count pennies: Every day of the week, have three or four
children take turns counting out their individual pennies on the overhead.
The
Great Penny Toss
Objective:
Children will understand that when a penny is tossed, it will not
always land on the same side.
Materials:
1 hand
lens for each pair of students one penny for each pair one recording sheet
for each pair two different colored crayons overhead projector and transparency
of recording sheet two vis a vis markers, different colors
chart paper
Procedure:
Children
will work in pairs. Tell the children to look carefully at both sides
of their penny with the band lens. Ask them what they notice about the
different sides. On chart paper, list the children's observations using
one side of the paper for each side of the penny Tell the children that
we call the side of the penny with Abraham Lincoln's head, the "heads"
side. The other side we call the "tails" side. Label the chart
paper accordingly.
Explain
to the children that they are going to play a probability game, or a game
of chance. Using the overhead and the recording sheet, ask for two volunteers
to come up. Ask one child to toss the coin onto the overhead. Ask which
side is showing. Have the child color in the first penny on either the
head's side or tail's side (use different colors for each side). Player
two tosses the penny and colors in the corresponding penny on the recording
sheet. Tell the partners to repeat this four more times (two tosses per
child), but before they do, ask the class to predict which side they think
will show up more times.
Have
the children play in pairs. Tell them to toss the penny and record, 10
times altogether. Have them predict after their first or second turn.
When done, have the pairs sit in a circle with the class to share their
findings. Ask the children what they discovered. Ask them what might happen
if they tossed the penny more than IO times? Would they get the same results?
If there
is time, let the children continue playing to see what would happen. Put
this game in a center so that children can play this game as many times
as they wish. Encourage them to find out what happens when they toss the
penny more times.
Assessment:
Children can accurately explain and show the "head's and "tail's"
side of a penny,
Children can correctly describe what will happen if you toss a penny more
than one time.
Children can accurately record observations on recording sheet.
Race to $1.00
Objectives:
Children will understand that 100 pennies has the same value as $1
.00. Children
will
understand that a $ 1. 00 bill has the same value as I 00 pennies.
Materials:
Arthur's Funny Money, by Lillian Hoban large photograph of 100
pennies, in rows of 10 x 10 a $ 1. 00 bill
"Race to $1.00" gameboard
I pair dice for each group numbered 05 chart paper
overhead projector
gameboard for overhead
Procedure:
Read the story Arthur's Funny Money. Have the children recall what
items Arthur bought with his money. Ask the children what they would buy
if they bad $1.00? Explain and show that 100 pennies is the same as $1.00.
Tell
the children that they will be playing a game called "Race to a Dollar".
The object of the game is for your group to get 100 pennies as quickly
as they can. Using an overhead projector and copy of the gameboard, ask
for three volunteers to play a demonstration game. Player one rolls the
dice, adds the numbers, and puts that number of pennies on the gameboard.
Players continue taking turns until they have filled the board. A single
die may be used to modify the game.
Have
the children play in groups of three. If time allows, they can play the
game again. They can also play "Race to 0", going backwards.
Use this
game in a center so children can play it again.
Assessment:
Children will accurately add numbers and count out the same number
of pennies. Children will correctly place pennies on the gameboard. Children
will correctly state that 100 pennies is the same as $1.00, or a dollar
bill.
How
Much is Your Footprint Worth?
Objectives:
Children will predict and count the number of pennies that fit inside
of their footprints.
Materials:
colored
construction paper, 9x 1 2 drawing or writing materials overhead projector
overhead transparency of a footprint Graph Club CD ROM
Procedure:
Explain to the children that they are going to work in pairs to help
each other trace their footprints. They can take their shoes off or leave
them on. Ask for two volunteers to demonstrate for the class. Then, ask
the children to predict how many pennies they think will fit inside of
their footprints. Put the transparency up and make a prediction for your
own footprint. Write the number somewhere in the border of the page. Explain
that after they make their own predictions, they will fill their footprints
with as many pennies as they can, without going over the outline. Pennies
should be placed side by side. Show on the overhead how they will do this.
Then, count the number of pennies and write the number in the border.
Discuss with the children beforehand whether they should count the pennies
that go over the edge of the footprint. Circle the actual number of pennies.
When
the children finish this task, they can share their predictions and results
with the class. Ask what might happen if they did this again with or without
shoes on. Would there be a difference?
Help
the children enter the results on the computer, using a graphing program
such as Tom Snyder's "The Graph Club". Create different types
of graphs to show the results in a variety of ways.
Leave
materials in a center for the children to try again.
Assessment:
Children will correctly count the number of pennies in outlines of their
feet.
Adding Coins
Objective:.
Children will use a variety of coins to make a dollar.
Material:
Jelly Beans for Sale, by Bruce McNfillan
large paper coins
coin paper money
real coins (100 pennies, 2 halfdollars, 3 quarters, 5 dimes, 5 nickels
per pair of students) 3x5 index cards on which are written values to be
used (for example, show 25 cents; show 25 cents using only nickels; show
25 cents using no nickels) 81/2 x I I boards on which are written the
words, "Put It Here"
Procedure:
Read and discuss Jelly Beans for Sale.
Attach large paper coins to strips of paper and place the strips at various
places along the floor. Select a sum of coins from one of the strips and
ask the children to find the strip that matches that sum. Try this with
some of the other strips.
Give
each pair a bag of assorted coins.
1. Have the students sort the coins by value.
2. Have the students select one coin from each pile and arrange them from
smallest to largest.
3. Have students select another coin from each pile. Beside each coin
use pennies to demonstrate the value of each coin.
4. Have the students arrange the second set of coins in a column from
largest to smallest.
Using the index cards, read one to the class. Children will place that
card's value on their desk. Explain to the children that they are going
to play a game. When you read one of the index cards, you want the students
to place coins equal to that value on the "Put It Here" board.
When
each space on the board has been filled, a new caller can be chosen for
a new game.
Assessment:
Children will identify specific coin values and add a random set to
determine their value.
Observing Coins
Objective:
Students will examine pennies, nickels, and dimes closely and Investigate
the qualities that are the same and different among them.
Materials:
One for each student:
8 1/2 x 14 photocopy paper, folded in half (short way) a penny, a nickel
and a dime magnifying lens pencil
chart paper, ruled into two columns
Procedure:
Place student materials at each desk. Have children work in small groups.
Give the children a few minutes to use the hand lenses to explore the
coins. Have them stop, and explain that when you say "Go!" you
want them to continue their exploration of the coins in a special way.
Tell them that you want them to look at the coins and find out all of
the ways they are the same. As an example, you could say that you noticed
all of the coins had the word "liberty" written on them. On
the chart paper, write the word "same" at the top of the left
side of the paper. Underneath, write "all say liberty". Tell
the children that you also want them to find ways in which the coins are
different. As an example, explain that you noticed the coins each have
different dates on them. Write "different" at the top of the
right column. Below, write "all have different numbers". Explain
to the children that as they are working, they should share their discoveries
with others in their small groups. Tell the children to "Go!"
Let the
children explore for a little while. Then, ask them if anyone found something
that was the same about all three of the coins. Continue with things that
are the same, then ask about differences. Write the children's responses
on the chart paper.
After
this task, have the children unfold their paper. tell them to make their
own chart of things that are the same and different about the coins. They
can write things from the class list or they can write other things that
they discovered.
Assessment:
Children can accurately describe different ways in which the three
coins were alike or different.
People Coins
objectives:
Children
learn to add together coins of different values. ChiIdren will learn how
to group coins by value to make them easier to count.
Materials:
large paper coins in respective sizes, labeled I cent, 5 cent, and IO
cents
Procedure:
Ask for seven volunteers to come up in front of the class. Pass out pennies
and nickels in a random order to the children. Ask the rest of the class
to find the sum of the coins. Ask the children if they could think of
an easier way to count the coins? Direct their discussion so that they
try their different ideas, but ultimately group the nickels together,
followed by the pennies.
Ask for a different group of volunteers and repeat this process, gradually
adding the dimes.
One variation
of this activity Is to have the children record the counting patterns
on chalkboards. They can work individually or with a partner. To make
the activity more challenging, add quarters.
Assessment:
Children will accurately group coins by value and correctly find the sums
of mixed values.
Benny's
Pennies
Objectives:
Children will learn the value of a dime. Children will begin to think
about the value of objects that might be sold in a store.
Materials:
Benny's
Pennies, by Pat Bn'sson
chart paper
coin stamps: pennies, nickels, dimes an enlarged photograph of a dime
an enlarged Photograph of 10 pennies chart paper
drawing paper
Procedure:
Show
the coin photographs to the children. Explain that 10 pennies has the
same value as one dime. Read the story Benny's Pennies to the children.
As you read, ask them to predict what they think Benny will buy on each
page. Reread the story, asking how much Benny has left after each purpose.
Write a number sentence on the chart paper to show the amount.
After
the story, ask the children to brainstorm a list of things that they would
like to buy if they had their own money. After a list is compiled, ask
the children to think about how much each item costs and why they think
so. Write the amount next to the item on the list.
Encourage
discussion before writing down the final amount next to each object.
Tell
the children they can choose one thing from the list to "buy".
Model the activity first by choosing an item from the list. Take a piece
of paper and draw a picture of the item on the paper. Write the value.
Fold the paper into fourths. Unfold the paper. Rewrite the value. Ask
the children to help you use the coin stamps to show how much the item
costs in one box. Then, have them help you show the amount in a different
way with different coin combinations. Continue until all four boxes are
done.
Tell
the children to pick one item that they would I Iike to buy and have them
complete the task. Share when finished.
Assessment:
Children will correctly identify the value of a dime. Children will show
one amount of money using different coin combinations.
Let's
Go Shopping!!
Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. Determine how much money they have in hand.
2. Find and read the price of a product.
3. Determine which product they would like to buy.
4. Determine if they have enough money for the item.
5. Count out the exact change or determine how much change they are due.
Materials:
Sheep in a Shop, by Nancy Shaw
Clean trash (empty soup cans, cereal boxes, vegetable cans, etc.) stickers
to use as price tags calculators
computers with an internet server
Procedure:
Read
and discuss Sheep in a Shop. Explain to the children that they will be
going shopping in their classroom. If possible, involve the children beforehand
in collecting and pricing items to sell in their store. Involve all of
the children in discussing how the store should be set up. Make a rotating
schedule so that all of the children have a chance to work in the store.
Have them brainstorm a list of different jobs that need to be done in
the store.
While
the class is working on individual projects, send two or three students
at a time to go "shopping". Give them a set amount of money
to shop with. The shoppers need to figure out what items can be purchased
with the amount of money they have. They need to tell the cashier how
much change, if any, they should get. Students can check their figures
using calculators. Take photographs of the children while they are shopping
and working in the store. Use the pictures to make a class book. If you
have the capability, use the Photographs on a school web page. Have the
children write about their store.
Young
children love to play store. Leave your store up as a center. Have a supply
of real or plastic coins for the children to use. Have the children think
of a name for their store.
Children
can communicate with children from other schools via the internet, telling
them about their store.
Assessment:
Children
will correctly add and subtract using a variety of coins.
Students will correctly use a calculator to check their work.
Resources
Hoban,Tana. 26 Letters and 99 cents. 1987. WilliamMorroNv.
N.Y.
Lewis,Brenda Ralph. Coins and Currency. 1993. RandomHouse. N.Y.
Additional
Children's Literature
Adams,BarbaraJohnston. The GoAround Dollar. 1992. MacMillan
PublishingCo. N.Y.
Caple,Kathy.
The Purse. 1986. Houghton Miffllin. Boston.
Daley,Niki.
Papa's Lucky Shadow. 1992. MargaretK.McEiderryBooks. N.Y.
Dumbleton,Mike.
DialACroc. 1991. Orchard Books. N.Y.
Hoban,
Lillian. Arthur's Funny Money. 1981. Harper Collins. N.Y.
Rodriguez,
Anita. Aunt Martha and the Golden Coin. 1993. Clarkson Potter.
N.Y.
Schwartz,DavidM.
If You Made A Millon. 1989. Lothrop,Lee,andShepard.
Sharmat,
Marjorie Weinman. Nate the Great Goes Down in the Dumps.
1989
Software
Exploring Measurement, Math and Money: Edmark Corp.
The
Graph Club: Tom Snyder Productions
Mighty
Math.for Zillion: Edmark Corp.
Money
Challenge: Gamco
Money
Town: Davidson and Assoc., Inc.
Money
Works: MECC
